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TRIPS require Member States to firmly protect intellectual property rights. Example of TRIPS: The 2002 Doha Declaration confirmed that the TRIPS agreement should not prevent members from taking the necessary measures to protect public health. Despite this recognition, less developed countries have argued that flexible TRIPS provisions, such as mandatory licensing, are almost impossible to obtain. The least developed countries, in particular, have made their young domestic manufacturing and technological industries proof of the infallible policy. As an alternative for TRIPS scientists, who were published here in response to numerous requests, the official documents on this subject are drawn from the 1986/94 Uruguay Round trade negotiations. They give scientists an idea of how the TRIPS AGREEMENT was reached. The documents contain meeting reports, other documents and communications from the participants in the negotiation, compiled by the GATT secretariat. Since the TRIPS agreement came into force, it has been criticized by developing countries, scientists and non-governmental organizations. While some of this criticism is generally opposed to the WTO, many proponents of trade liberalization also view TRIPS policy as a bad policy.

The effects of the concentration of WEALTH of TRIPS (money from people in developing countries for copyright and patent holders in industrialized countries) and the imposition of artificial shortages on citizens of countries that would otherwise have had weaker intellectual property laws are common bases for such criticisms. Other critics have focused on the inability of trips trips to accelerate the flow of investment and technology to low-income countries, a benefit that WTO members achieved prior to the creation of the agreement. The World Bank`s statements indicate that TRIPS have clearly not accelerated investment in low-income countries, whereas they may have done so for middle-income countries. [33] As part of TRIPS, long periods of patent validity were examined to determine the excessive slowdown in generic drug entry and competition. In particular, the illegality of preclinical testing or the presentation of samples to be authorized until a patent expires have been accused of encouraging the growth of certain multinationals and not producers in developing countries. It has therefore been argued that the TRIPS standard, which requires all countries to have strict IP systems in place, will harm the development of the poorest countries. [13] [14] It has been argued that it is in the strategic interest of most, if not all, countries to use the flexibility available in TRIPS to pass the weakest IP laws. [15] The WTO regularly organizes symposia, training and other events on intellectual property, trade and other related topics in collaboration with other international organizations. For more details on the events, click here. In particular, the TRIPS requires WTO members to grant intellectual property rights to authors and other copyright holders as well as to neighbouring rights holders, i.e. performers, phonograms and broadcasters; Geographical indications Industrial designs; Built-in switching designs Patents New plant varieties Brands; Trade names and undisclosed or confidential information. TRIPS also defines enforcement procedures, remedies and dispute resolution procedures.

The protection and enforcement of all intellectual property rights must be consistent with the objectives that contribute to the promotion of technological innovation and the transfer and dissemination of technology, to the mutual benefit of producers and users of technological knowledge, and in a way that promotes social and economic well-being, and a balance of rights and obligations.