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... Staurozoa are small animals [1-4 cm, which live in marine environments, usually attached to algae, rocks or gravel. However, recent phyloge-nomic analyses [10] placed Staurozoa in a clade with Cubozoa and Scyphozoa (Fig. 1f), [15, 20]. In this Dissertation we propose an integrative study of the evolution of Staurozoa, encompassing molecular, morphology, and cnidome information. Members of this class are commonly found in relatively cold waters, close to the shoreline. Support for the placement of Staurozoa has been characteristically low in Organisms of this class are shaped like a goblet with eight tentacles attached to the goblet's margins. Jellyfish have a life cycle with two main body´s forms. Comparative efforts to understand the body plan evolution of stalked jellyfishes are scarce. Information on Staurozoa, one of the least studied groups within Cnidaria, is often neglected in the literature, but correctly The Staurozoa are unique in not having an alternation of polyp and medusa life cycle phases. A form of free swimming called a jellyfish and a non-swimming form called a polyp. They have an attached medusa stage, with a life style looking rather like polypoid forms. Cubozoa, Scyphozoa, and Staurozoa with eyes being topologically associated with primary tentacles in each of these taxa could indicate shared ancestry and a single origin of eyes in this clade known as Acraspeda. Staurozoa is a class of benthic cnidarians, the so-called stalk ed jellyfishes (Figs. ... use of substrate, feeding, behavior, life cycle, and conservation. Most characters, and particularly internal anatomy, have neither been explored for the class Staurozoa, nor broadly applied in its taxonomy and classification. Organisms in Staurozoa are all marine, they also lack a medusa. The aboral end of the polyp attaches itself to a substrate, which is usually a rock or seaweed. 2012a). Life cycles of medusozoan cnidarians vary widely, and have been difficult to document, especially in the most recently proposed class Staurozoa. The Staurozoa are unique in not having an alternation of polyp and medusa life cycle phases. Diverse types of asexual reproduction and encystment are found in Anthozoa [34, 35], Cubozoa [36, 37], and Staurozoa [28, 38], and life cycles in Hydrozoa are characterized by an unparalleled plasticity . The life cycle of staurozoans is partic-ular among the Medusozoa because it does not include any planktonic stage (Miranda et al. They have an attached medusa stage, with a life style looking rather like polypoid forms. 1f middle). Staurozoa is one of the five current classes of the phylum Cnidaria. 1 and 2), represented by approximately 50 species ( Clark, 1863 ; K ramp, 1961 ; Daly et al., 2007 ). Members of this class are commonly found in relatively cold waters, close to the shoreline. Life cycle does not contain a medusa phase; the top of the polyp resembles a medusa Class Staurozoa Medusoid is the predominant form, polypoid is inconspicuous and in most cases unknown rDNA, life history and anatomical features have suggested that Staurozoa is the sister lineage to the remainder of Medusozoa (Fig. Staurozoa used to be classified into Scyphozoa. Instead, the creeping ... Observations on the disappearance of Staurozoa from their habitats indicate that they may be sensitive to water pollution and other changes of environmental conditions (e.g., Mayer Medusa life cycle, and cnidome information the placement of Staurozoa, encompassing molecular,,... Placement of Staurozoa, encompassing molecular, morphology, and conservation alternation of polyp and medusa life cycle phases class... 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