These alliances were often fragile and therefore required more formal alliances. After the metaphor of the chain, these more formal agreements required moving from an iron chain that tended towards rust to a silver chain. These agreements or contracts required regular renewals, accompanied by gifts and aid for the Haudenosaunee; it is known as polishing the silver chain. The British and Haudenosaunee also signed the Treaty of Fort Stanwix in October-November 1768 to define the boundaries of the reserved hunting areas set out in the Royal Proclamation of 1763. An Haudenosaunee delegate thanked the British officers for polishing the chain when it became dull, and said: „We will now renovate and strengthen the Alliance chain on our parts until we maintain it, as long as you keep it strong and bright on your side.“ The Covenant Chain, as historian J.R. Miller described it, was proof of the diplomatic capacity of the Haudenosaunee. There were many treaties and agreements between the Haudenosaunee and the European nations. Guswenta (Two Row Wampum) and the Covenant Chain of Peace were the first of these agreements. When the English took over the New Netherlands in 1664 and founded the province of New York, they renewed these agreements. During King Philip`s War in 1675, conflicts broke out in New England, the „most destructive war“ in 17th-century North America, where more than 600 settlers and 3,000 Indians died. [2] Almost at the same time, Bacon`s rebellion was in Virginia. Both led to widespread suffering and loss among Indians and settlers. [1] Kanyen`kehé:ka officially announced in June 1753 that the alliance chain had been broken because the colonial authorities had unjustly taken land from Haudenosaunee, and the other five nations were thus informed.

The following year, Anglo-American settlers gathered in Albany, New York, with Haudenosaunee delegates to restore the chain at a time when the French were building their stop in the Ohio Valley. The Haudenosaune condolence ceremony, with corresponding gifts for vows and promises made (long held in New France), was adopted as part of the negotiation process and the chain was restored. At the outbreak of the Seven Years` War the following year, the Haudenosaunee allied itself with Great Britain. When the dominant European powers changed in North America, the chain of alliances with the Haudenosaunee was constantly renewed. In 1755, William Johnson renewed the concept of the Covenant Chain at a council meeting with the Iroquois by reaffirming the symbolic significance of this agreement and calling it the „chain of the covenant of love and friendship.“ He explained that the chain was attached to the still mountains and that almost every year the British and Iroquais would come together to „strengthen and clear up“ the chain. Contractual assemblies, such as those of 1754 in Albany, served to „strengthen and clarify“ the chain of the alliance. The Covenant Chain is embodied in the two-row wampum of the Iroquais. It was based on agreements negotiated between Dutch settlers in New Holland (now New York) and the Five Nations of the Iroquois (or Haudenosaunee) in the early 17th century.

It focused on trade with the Indians. As historian Bernard Bailyn noted, all the colonies, Dutch and English, were first created to generate profits. [1] In June 2010, Queen Elizabeth II of Canada renewed the treaty on the Alliance Chain by handing over 8 silver bells to the leaders of the Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory and the Six Nations of the Great River in memory of the 300th anniversary of the Covenant Chain. [7] The bells bore the chain of friendship 1710-2010 (which was a common term, often used throughout history, when the channel was renewed). [8] [9] This is the most modern renewal of the alliance chain agreements between the Haudenosaunee and the Crown of Canada and provides a legal basis for the recognition of Haudenosaunee sovereignty and international trade between the two nations. [Citation required] [Original research?] In these agreements, the colonies agreed to conduct negotiations in general in Albany, New York, under the aegis of