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Coined by contemporary LGBT Native Americans to describe … "Queer Theory and Native Studies: The Heteronormativity of Settler Colonialism". [12], When Indigenous people from communities that are less-accepting of two-spirits have sought community among non-Native LGBT communities, however, the tendency for non-Natives to tokenize and appropriate has at times led to rifts rather than unity, with two-spirits feeling like they are just another tacked on initial rather than fully included. [77] Showrunner Misha Green addressed the fate of this character by tweeting "I wanted to show the uncomfortable truth that oppressed folks can also be oppressors. The English translation reads: I have submitted substantial evidence that those Indian men who, both here and farther inland, are observed in the dress, clothing and character of women â€“ there being two or three such in each village â€“ pass as sodomites by profession. #16days #EndGBV #MMIW pic.twitter.com/wXLZvURXvc, — John Horgan (@jjhorgan) November 26, 2018. He invites the protagonist, Jack Crabb (Dustin Hoffman) to come live with him. [4] The decision to adopt this new, pan-Indian term was deliberate, with a clear intention to distance themselves from non-Native gays and lesbians,[9] as well as from non-Native terminology like berdache, "gay", "lesbian", and "trans". In an interview she says, "I identify as queer, and not two-spirited, because I’m Mohawk and we don’t have that" and that Neil Gaiman (author of the novels on which the series is based) advocated strongly for her to be cast in the role. Have a favorite QPOC creator? In the Mojave tribe, for instance, they frequently become medicine persons and, like all who deal with the supernatural, are at risk of suspicion of witchcraft, notably in cases of failed harvest or of death. Both were considered to be strong spiritually, and they were always honoured, especially during ceremonies. Kids Help Phone uses this acronym because it’s shorter and easier to write. [28], The increasing visibility of the two-spirit concept in mainstream culture has been seen as both empowering and as having some undesirable consequences, such as the spread of misinformation about the cultures of Indigenous people, pan-Indianism, and cultural appropriation of Indigenous identities and ceremonial ways among non-Natives who do not understand that Indigenous communities see two-spirit as a specifically Native American and First Nations cultural identity, not one to be taken up by non-Natives. [76], Lovecraft Country, a 2020 HBO television series, features Yahima, an Arawak two-spirit character. The French called these people berdaches. Activists and members of the queer community have since come together to form the current acronym, "LGBTQIA+." [8][33] However, much of this academic analysis and publishing is not based in traditional indigenous knowledge, but in the more mainstream, non-Native perspectives of the broader LGBT communities, so most of the same cultural misunderstandings tend to be found as in the outdated writing of the non-Native anthropologists and "explorers". It means having both female and male spirits within one person. 1997:3-5), but the urban American neologism "two-spirit" can be misleading.[15]. A Two Spirit person may be gay, but a gay person is not necessarily Two Spirit. LGBT or GLBT, is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender.In use since the 1990s, the term is an adaptation of the initialism LGB, which began to replace the term gay in reference to the broader LGBT community beginning in the mid-to-late 1980s. It took diverse forms (and terms) within the hundreds of tribes across the Americas. [8][4][18] The following list is not comprehensive. . Other concerns about this pan-Indian, English-language term have centered around the binary nature of two-spirit, a sense not found in the traditional names for these individuals or their roles in traditional cultures, It implies that the individual is both male and female and that these aspects are intertwined within them. It is not about sexual preference. The unsavory word "berdache" certainly ought to be ditched (Jacobs et al. Two-Spirit Community. Franc Johnson Newcomb (1980-06). They consider themselves to be "muxe in men's bodies," who do the work that their culture usually associates with women. It especially referred to birth-assigned men who took social identity and dress of women. [4], While some have found the term a useful tool for intertribal organizing, "the concept and word two-spirit has no traditional cultural significance". [52], Lang and Jacobs write that historically among the Apache, the Lipan, Chiricahua, Mescalero, and southern Dilzhe'e have alternative gender identities. [65][66][67][68] Spanish explorers who encountered these individuals among the Chumash people called them "joyas", the Spanish for "jewels". I'm really glad the miseducation of cameron post adressed two-spirit and lgbt+ native americans experience even if brief. Accordingly, the change from berdache to two-spirit is most accurately understood as a non-Native idealization of the social acceptance of gender variance, idealizing a romanticized acceptance of gender variance. LGBT – Two Spirit People often use the words lesbian, gay, bi-sexual, two-spirit or queer (LGBTQ) to describe their sexual orientation. Their work explores the intersections of queer and Indigenous identity, and social justice. The ikwekaazowag worked and dressed like women. At the same time, others saw it as a capitulation to urbanization and loss of culture that, while initially intended to help people reconnect with the spiritual dimension of these roles, was not working out the way it had been intended. It does not take into account the terms and meanings from individual nations and tribes. [12], In academia, there has since 2010 or earlier been a move to "queer the analytics of settler colonialism" and create a "twospirit" critique as part of the general field of queer studies. Lang believes "the mere fact that a male wears women's clothing does not say something about his role behavior, his gender status, or even his choice of partner". This is not meant to be a formal definition of two-spirit like most terms we define on Dictionary.com, but is In these communities, those looking for two-spirit community have sometimes faced oppression and rejection. She calls it ‘two spirit’.” pic.twitter.com/ICOlmrQM1o. [4] The primary purpose of coining a new term was to encourage the replacement of the outdated, and offensive, anthropological term berdache, which means "passive partner in sodomy, boy prostitute."[6][5][7]. [51] Another instance in the late 1840s was of a Crow badé who was caught, possibly raiding horses, by the Lakota and was killed. Modern Two-Spirit activities include: 1. Looking for online definition of LGBTTIQQ2S or what LGBTTIQQ2S stands for? [73][74], In the 2018 indie film, The Miseducation of Cameron Post, a Lakota character – Adam Red Eagle, played by Forrest Goodluck – is sent to a conversion camp for identifying as winkte and two-spirit. Her Mom is seeing her speak for the first time! In a departure from most portrayals in Westerns of the era, Crabb is touched and flattered by the offer. [11][8] Among the Indigenous communities that traditionally have roles for two-spirit people, specific terms in their own languages are used for the social and spiritual roles these individuals fulfill. "[78], In 2012, a marker dedicated to two spirit people was included in the Legacy Walk, an outdoor public display in Chicago, Illinois, that celebrates LGBT history and people.[79]. The acronym may also be written to explicitly include two-spirit (often T, TS or 2), intersex (I), queer (Q) or questioning (Q or ?) [6][5][7], "Two Spirit" was not intended to be interchangeable with "LGBT Native American" or "Gay Indian";[2] rather, it was created in English (and then translated into Ojibwe), to serve as a pan-Indian unifier, to be used for general audiences instead of the traditional terms in Indigenous languages for what are actually quite diverse, culturally-specific ceremonial and social roles, that can vary quite widely (if and when they exist at all). Learn more about the history of two spirit identity. In the 1970 film Little Big Man, the Cheyenne character Little Horse, portrayed by Robert Little Star, is a gay man who wears clothing more commonly worn by women in the culture. Strong character made his word law among both men and women with whom he associated. The term Two Spirit is an umbrella term across American Indian and First Nations cultures for a person who embodies both male and female spirits within them, hence Two Spirit. [60] The belief that these laws existed, at least for the Aztecs, comes from the Florentine Codex, and that evidence exists that indigenous peoples authored many codices, but the Spaniards destroyed most of them in their attempt to eradicate ancient beliefs. #twosprit https://t.co/IclyXwLXSU, — Cinnamon C-Legutko (@CLegutko) December 14, 2018. [33] However, Indigenous identity is predominantly cultural, rather than a racial classification. Jason Mraz opens up about his sexuality to @billboard. The topic has been featured in several documentaries and films in the 2000–10s, including the 2018 Miseducation of Cameron Post, following a Two Spirit person sent to conversion camp. These terms separated Native cultural identity from sexuality and gender identity, furthering a disconnect felt by many Native American/First Nations peoples in negotiating the boundaries of life between two worlds (Native and non-Native/Western). Since historically, many "berdache/two-spirit" individuals held religious or spiritual roles, the term two spirit creates a disconnection from the past. [1][2][4] Opinions vary as to whether or not this objective has succeeded. It was an honour to hear from women who are fighting to end violence against women, trans, two spirit and gender-diverse people. Privileged to hear Benny Michaud speak today @MoodDisordersCa @CDSBEO about her Métis, two-spirit background. Pop star Jason Mraz came under fire in July 2018 when he discussed his sexuality in terms of Two Spirit, which he says his wife defined in terms of bisexuality. [1][2] Talking to The New York Times in 2006, Joey Criddle said, The elders will tell you the difference between a gay Indian and a Two-Spirit," ... underscoring the idea that simply being gay and Indian does not make someone a Two-Spirit.[2]. Thank you for your incredibly important work @MOSAICBC @EndingViolence @VSACentre @DisabAllianceBC @WestCoast_LEAF. It originated at a 1990 conference for gay and lesbian Native people to replace the hurtful, derogatory, colonial term berdache (French for a “young male kept for gay sex”), used for gender-nonconforming … Don Pedro Fages was third in command of the 1769–70 Spanish Portolá expedition, the first European land exploration of what is now the U.S. state of California. rather an informal word summary that hopefully touches upon the key aspects of the meaning and usage of two-spirit This language barrier limits our understanding of the traditional roles within Native American/First Nations cultures.[4]. Fages gave more descriptive details about the native Californians than any of the others, and he alone reported the presence of homosexuality in the native culture. Bisexual. 1998) in San Francisco, California;[39] Central Oklahoma Two Spirit Natives in Oklahoma City; the East Coast Two Spirit Society and the NorthEast Two-Spirit Society in New York City; Idaho Two-Spirit Society; the Indiana Two-Spirit Society in Bloomington; Minnesota Two Spirits; the Montana Two-Spirit Society in Browning; the Northwest Two-Spirit Society in Seattle, Washington; the Ohio Valley Two Spirit Society of Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, and Southern Illinois;[40][41] the Portland Two Spirit Society (est. non-Native American/Canadian) anthropologists used the term berdache (/bərˈdæʃ/), in a very broad manner, to identify an indigenous individual fulfilling one of many mixed gender roles in their tribe. Knowledge in ritual, ceremonial, religious, and culture 2. Two-spirited is a reclaimed term designed by Aboriginals to define our unique cultural context, histories, and legacy. How to use the term two-spirit Their mates were not considered ikwekaazo or ininiikaazo, however, because their function in society was still in keeping with their sex. These writings were and still are entrenched in the perspective of the authors who were and are mostly white men. Although the current new meme or legend surrounding the term two spirit is certainly laudable for helping LGBTQ people create their own more empowering terminology to describe themselves, it carries some questionable baggage. However, some in mainstream culture have appropriated or misunderstood Two Spirit outside of its complex and historic Native American cultural context. #NativeAmericanHeritageMonth pic.twitter.com/rsBOSJiPUq, — The I Project (@itstheiproject) November 27, 2018. Two Spirit has spread in the 2000s with growing visibility and inclusion of gender diversity in culture. Traditionally, Native American two spirit people were male, female, and sometimes intersexed individuals who combined activities of both men and women with traits unique to their status as two spirit people. or Two-Spirit or Two Spirit or two-spirited [4], For First Nations people whose lives have been impacted by the Residential Schools, and other Indigenous communities who have experienced severe cultural damage from colonization, the specific two-spirit traditions in their communities may have been severely damaged, fragmented, or even lost. Organizations such as the National Confederacy of Two-Spirit Organizations (NC2SO) and the Northeast Two-Spirit Society (now known as the East Coast Two Spirit Society, EC2SS) seek to educate the general public about two-spirit traditions. [47], Historically, the presence of male-bodied two-spirits "was a fundamental institution among most tribal peoples", according to Brian Gilley[48] and, according to non-Native anthropologist Will Roscoe, both male- and female-bodied two-spirits have been documented "in over 130 North American tribes, in every region of the continent". Although all of the different identities within “LGBT” are often lumped together (and share sexism as a common root of oppression), there are specific needs and concerns related to each individual identity. [In Ojibwe cultures] Sex usually determined one's gender, and therefore one's work, but the Ojibwe accepted variation. [9], While the words niizh manidoowag (from Ojibwe) were also proposed at the same time in this discussion (to honor the language of the Peoples in whose territory the conference was being held), this term had not been previously used, in either Ojibwe or English, until this conference in 1990, nor was this term ever intended to replace the traditional terms or concepts already in use in Native ceremonial cultures. As such, is only properly understood in Indigenous contexts and used by Native persons. [38], Some two-spirit societies (past and present) include: 2Spirits of Toronto in Toronto, Ontario; the Wabanaki Two Spirit Alliance in Nova Scotia; the Bay Area American Indian Two-Spirits (est. The ininiikaazowag worked and dressed like men. )[6], Even at the series of conferences where the term was gradually adopted (1990 being the third of five), concern was expressed by a number of the Native attendees that traditional Natives back in the reservation communities would never agree to this newly-coined concept, or adopt the neologism being used to describe it. The idea of gender and sexuality variance being universally accepted among Native American/First Nations peoples has become romanticized. [53][54] One tribe in particular, the Eyak, has a single report from 1938 that they did not have an alternative gender and they held such individuals in low esteem, although whether this sentiment is the result of acculturation or not is unknown. [5] While this new term has not been universally accepted—it has been criticized as a term of erasure by traditional communities who already have their own terms for the people being grouped under this new term, and by those who reject what they call the "western" binary implications, such as implying that Natives believe these individuals are "both male and female"[4]—it has generally received more acceptance and use than the anthropological term it replaced. For example, LGBTTTIQ stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, transsexual, two-spirit, intersex and queer. [57][58] Some sources have reported that the Aztecs and Incas had laws against such individuals,[59] though there are some authors who feel that this was exaggerated or the result of acculturation, because all of the documents indicating this are post-conquest and any that existed before had been destroyed by the Spanish. [61], Some contemporary Zapotec peoples in Mexico embody the traditional third gender role known as muxe. It originated at a 1990 conference for gay and lesbian Native people to replace the hurtful, derogatory, colonial term berdache (French for a “young male kept for gay sex”), used for gender-nonconforming individuals. Two-spirited Aboriginal people: Continuing cultural appropriation by non-Aboriginal society. [4] Even with the modern adoption of pan-Indian terms like two-spirit, and the creation of a modern pan-Indian community around this naming, not all cultures will perceive two-spirits the same way, or welcome a pan-Indian term to replace the terms already in use by their cultures. De Vries writes, "Berdache is a derogatory term created by Europeans and perpetuated by anthropologists and others to define Native American/First Nations people who varied from Western norms that perceive gender, sex, and sexuality as binaries and inseparable. Though his wrath was dreaded by men as well as women, he was loved by all children, to whom he was ever kind.". [1][2] Inclusion in this list is thus not an indication of whether the person is recognized or not. Has a different meaning in different communities. Berlo, Janet C. and Ruth B. They are called joyas, and are held in great esteem. Phillips. Gender dysphoria [12], The term two-spirited was chosen to emphasize our difference in our experiences of multiple, interlocking oppressions as queer Aboriginal people. [6][9], Cameron writes, "The term two-spirit is thus an Aboriginal-specific term of resistance to colonization and non-transferable to other cultures. With over 500 surviving Native American cultures, attitudes about sex and gender can be diverse. The term \"Two-Spirit\" is most comfortably applied to contemporary individuals and groups who identify as such, and Two-Spirit men may distinguish between spiritual and cultural practitioners, or \"Two-Spirits\", and \"gay Indians\". [1][2][3], The term two-spirit was created in 1990 at the Indigenous lesbian and gay international gathering in Winnipeg, and "specifically chosen to distinguish and distance Native American/First Nations people from non-Native peoples. [55], Among the Iroquois, there is a single report from Bacqueville de la Potherie in his book published in 1722, Histoire de l'Amérique septentrionale, that indicates that an alternative gender identity exists among them. "Apples are the Color of Blood", Gender roles among the indigenous peoples of North America, Native American identity in the United States, "Two-Spirit People: Sex, Gender & Sexuality in Historic and Contemporary Native America", "Directions in Gender Research in American Indian Societies: Two Spirits and Other Categories", "Will Roscoe papers and Gay American Indians records", "Directions in Gender Research in American Indian Societies: Two Spirits and Other Categories by Beatrice Medicine", "Native American 'Two-Spirit People' Serve Unique Roles Within Their Communities – One 'Winkte' Talks About Role Of LGBT People In Lakota Culture", "Inventory of Aboriginal Services, Issues and Initiatives in Vancouver: Two Spirit – LGTB", "Inventory of Aboriginal Services, Issues, and Initiatives in Vancouver", "Berdach to Two-Spirit: The Revival of Native American Traditions", "Rainbow and red: Queer American Indians from New York to San Francisco are showing both their spirits", "Out in Bloomington: Boy Scouts raise debate", "Portland Two Spirit Society: Finding family and a connection to history in shared identities", "Two-Spirit Leaders Call on Washington to Include Native Women in Re-Authorization of VAWA", "Two-Spirit gathering at Portland State University, Wednesday, May 26, 2010", "New Mexico GSA: Resources § Native / First Nations", 0General Discussion of the Primary Sources Used in This Project", How to become a Berdache: Toward a unified analysis of gender diversity, "Definition of "bardash" – Collins English Dictionary", "Two Spirits | Native American Gender Diversity | Independent Lens", "The Bravest Choice Is To Be Yourself | Video | Independent Lens", "A Q and A session with OUTSaskatoon two spirit elder Marjorie Beaucage", "Storytelling as medicine: Coming In documentary follows two-spirited people living in Sask", "Forrest Goodluck: the Native American actor ripping up the rulebook", https://www.abqjournal.com/1497123/blissful-whirlwind.html, https://www.syfy.com/syfywire/lovecraft-country-misha-green-failed-indigenous-two-spirit-representation, "Minnesota Rep. Susan Allen Is Two-Spirit, a Lesbian, and She Won't Be Assimilated", "Two-Spirit filmmaker puts queer representation first in films", A Cree doctor's caring approach for transgender patients, "Extraordinary Women Making History: Five Fast Facts About Rebecca Nagle, The Indigenous Activist Upsetting Rape Culture", "Smokii Sumac on Being Seen in Poetry, Why Endings Matter, and a New Spin on Love Letters", "Why two-spirit, trans writer Arielle Twist is afraid of love", "Aboriginal music awards host two-spirited performer", Language, culture, and Two-Spirit identity, Native American 'Two-Spirit People' Serve Unique Roles Within Their Communities, African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East and Arctic, National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (Philippines), United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador, Coordinator of Indigenous Organizations of the Amazon River Basin, Indigenous Peoples Council on Biocolonialism, International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, National Indigenous Organization of Colombia, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989, Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 2007, Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures, Discrimination against non-binary gender people, Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019, History of Christianity and homosexuality, Timeline of sexual orientation and medicine, SPLC-designated list of anti-LGBT U.S. hate groups, Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany, Significant acts of violence against LGBT people, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Two-spirit&oldid=1001737781, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 21 January 2021, at 02:32. 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